Acne(pimple)-cause,types,treatment,prevention2020

INTRODUCTION

Acne is a skin condition characterized by red pimples on the skin, especially on the face, due to inflamed or infected sebaceous glands.it is seen among adolescents.

ETIOPATHOGENESIS/CAUSES OF ACNE(PIMPLE)

how hormonal acne in polycystic ovarian syndrome pcos is caused etiopathogenesis flowchart role of insulin and androgen in acne
MECHANISM OF PIMPLE FORMATION

Other Causes associated with acne(pimple) production.

a)Diet: Dairy products are seen to have role in pimple formation

          -Food with high glycemic index->>increase Insulin like growth factors.

          -It’s a common myth that acne is caused or flared up by eating oily foods.But according to research eating oily foods won’t cause acne or make it worse.[CAUTION-oils in junk food,fast food,oil used in deep frying which is used over and over again is obviously bad for health.]

        b)Premenstrual flare- Progesterone has proinflammatory effect.

    c)Genetics,  and stress, hot and humid climates, using oil-based makeup, and squeezing pimples also play a role in acne formation.

    d) Friction or pressure on your skin. This can be caused by items such as telephones, cellphones, helmets, tight collars etc

To know more about health tips to get rid of pimples,read this article by us-Top 10 natural home remedy for pimple/How to get rid of pimple

CLINICAL FEATURES

They are polymorphic lesions.

1)comedones most characteristic : (a) open(blackhead)

                                                                (b)closed(white head).

2)papules,nodules,cyst,pustules,abscess.

CLASSIFICATION

Based on predominant lesions.

GRADE I – comedonal [ex.bump /pimple with blackheads]

GRADE II – papules [ex. inflammed bumps/pimple]

GRADE III – pustules [ex. bump/pimple with pus in it]

GRADE IV – nodulocystic (most severe)

 

TREATMENT

GRADE I

topical retinoids: Tretinoin,

Adapelene.

GRADE II

topical retinoid + topical

antibiotic (Clindamycin,

Nadifloxacin).

GRADE III

topical retinoid + oral

antibiotics.(Doxycycline,Azithromycin,

Minocycline) +/- Benzoyl peroxide.

GRADE IV

Oral Retinoids: Isotretinoine

WARNING-Please consult registered medical practitioner before using any medicines shown on this site.this article is for educational purpose and we are not advising/prescribing any medicines mentioned in this article.

NOTE–>Isotretinoine is drug of choice for severe/Grade IV(Nodulocystic) (most severe variant of acne).

         —>dose:0.5 – 1mg/kg/body wt.

NOTE–>Benzoyl peroxide-drug of choice for antibiotic resistant pimple.

MUST KNOW-Top 10 natural home remedy for pimples/How to get rid of pimple

SIDE EFFECTS OF THE TREATMENT

A)Retinoids

1)Most common is Cheilitis(dryness of lips).

2)teratogenic

[in pregnant females newborn is born with birth defects]

(give double contraception to non pregnant menstruating female).

teratogenic effect last for 1month after stoppage of drug.

Note: Acitretin teratogenic effect lasts for 3yrs after stopping the therapy.

3)Pseudo tumor cerebri.

4)it can increase suicidal tendencies therefore should be avoided in depression.

B)Doxycycline– Photo onycholysis  (Photo sensitivity).

C)Minocycline- blue-black pigmentation of skin and nails.

HOW TO PREVENT PIMPLES?

  • Wash your face no more than twice each day with warm water and mild soap made especially for acne.
  • Do not scrub the skin or burst the pimples, as this may push the infection further down, causing more blocking, swelling, and redness.
  • Avoid popping of pimples as it leaves scar of the face.
  • Squeezing a pimple can push bacteria and debris further into the skin, so the pimple may come back worse than it was before.
  •  Refrain from touching the face.
  •  Hold the telephone away from the face when talking, as it is likely to contain sebum and skin residue which may clog pores on the face.
  • Wash your hands frequently, especially before applying lotions, creams, or makeup.
    FOR MORE READ ON HOW TO PREVENT ACNE READ OUR IN DEPTH ARTICLE-How to prevent pimples?12 Best tips with expert advise.

When to see a doctor

If self-care remedies don’t clear your acne, see your primary care doctor. He or she can prescribe stronger medications. If acne persists or is severe, you may want to seek medical treatment from a doctor who specializes in the skin (dermatologist).

OTHER TYPES OF ACNE

DRUGS CAUSING acneiform eruptions/drug induced acne

Most common in world- steroids.

Most common in India- isoniazid.

comedones are absent.

most commonly involves the trunk.

other drugs: Lithium, Iodine, OCPs etc.

How to prevent acne-dont squeeze your pimples

HORMONAL ACNE

how hormonal acne in polycystic ovarian syndrome pcos is caused etiopathogenesis flowchart role of insulin and androgen in acne
Hormonal acne seen in PCOS-Polycystic ovarian syndrome

THIS type of acne is seen in females having PCOS(polycystic ovary syndrome).These females have hormonal imbalance which is the main cause of acne in them therefore the name hormonal acne.

Drug of choice for hormonal acne is Cyproterone Acetate.

ACNE CONGLOBATA

It is one of the most severe forms of acne. It involves many inflamed nodules that are connected under the skin to other nodules.

It can affect the neck, chest, arms, and buttocks. It often leaves scars. This type of pimples are more common in men and is sometimes caused by taking steroids or testosterone.

Timely treatment by a dermatologist is essential.

ACNE MECHANICA

It is caused by heat, friction, and pressure against the skin, often the result of wearing sports gear such as a helmet or baseball cap.

It is sometimes called “sports-induced acne” because it occurs frequently in athletes.

Preventive measures include wearing an absorbent material under sports equipment and showering immediately after activity.

MORE READS-Top 10 natural home remedy for pimple/How to get rid of pimple
MORE READS-How to prevent pimples?12 Best tips with expert advise.

MORE READS-RISK FACTORS FOR DIABETES

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