Memory-most important gift from god 2020



  • Memory is regarded as A special ability of our mind to conserve or store What has been previously learned or experienced to recollect Or reproduce after sometime.

Factors of memory

  • Memory is a complex process Which involves four factors:

1.Learning or registration

  • When we see or experience something our brain retains the information in the form of ‘engrams’ (traces).

2. Retention

These engrams or the memory traces are preserved in our brain with the help of our nervous system called as Retention.

3. Recall or retrieval

It means perfect revival of the past experience.

4. Recognition

  • Recall and recognition are closely related.
  • Recall provides materials in memory ,while recognition is the process of accepting or rejecting it.
  • Recall is a active process, while recognition is more of a passive behavior
  •  e.g. Remembering a person’s name, that means the name is learned => Retained in mind => When needed recalled and recognized.



Health of the body

Emotional calm

Lack of distractions

Attention and interest of the learner

Vividness of the experience to be recalled

Association of the experience to be recalled

Stages of memory

1.Encoding: means transforming the sensory input into a form that can be processed by the memory system.

2.Storage: The encoded information is transferred to storage.

3.Retrieval: Involves in the recovery of the stored information.


1.Immediate / sensory memory:


  • Purpose: to retain exact image of sensory information long enough to focus on important info and transfer it to next stage
  • All senses have a sensory memory
  • Duration depends on the sense involved
  • Capacity is relatively large
  • e.g we look up a telephone number and dial but after making call we usually forget it.

2.Short term memory:


  • Purpose – temporarily stores info until it is sent to LTM
  • Duration – relatively limited
  • Capacity: 5 to 9 items
  • Duration and capacity can be increased with maintenance rehearsal and/or chunking
  • Also known as “working memory”

3.Long term memory:


  • Purpose is to keep info stored for long periods of time
  • Unlimited capacity and duration

Varieties of Long term memory

  • Explicit/Declarative
  • Implicit/nondeclarative


  • Memories with conscious recall
  • Semantic (general knowledge)
  • Episodic (personal experiences)

Procedural Memory

  • Memory without awareness
  • Procedures involved in habits

Memory disorders (amnesia)

1.Amnesia: means loss of memory, it can be partial or complete.

  1. Anterograde amnesia-loss of memory for recent events
  2. Retrograde amnesia-loss of memory for remote events
  3. Total amnesia-loss of memory for recent and remote events
  4. Circumscribed amnesia-loss of memory for limited time

2.PAR Amnesia

  • Confabulation- Patient fills the gaps in his/her memory with fabrication.
  • Falsification- Patient adds false details to the true memory.

3.Hyperamnesia: excessive memory,the patient mentions even unnecessary details about the event.

4.-Deja vu phenomenon: in which new situation is experienced as previously seen.

 5.Jamais vu phenomenon: in which familiar situation is experienced as new.

Mental status examination (M.S.E)

  • In this we use tests to assess memory.

1.Immediate retention and recall

  Show 5 items to client e.g Pen,pencil,eraser,scissors,ruler and ask to recall in 5mins.

  1. Recent memory

 This is tested by asking the client what he ate for dinner the day before and what he ate for breakfast the same morning.

  1. Recent past

E.g. Ask which festival comes in December.

  1. Remote memory

 E.g. Ask for date and place of marriage, or birthdate of children, or any relevant questions from the persons past.


  • Encourage patient to use written cues such as calender lists or a notebook.
  • Provide single step instructions.
  • Keep environmental changes to a necessary minimum.
  • Maximize independent function and to help him perform normal day to day work.
  • It is important to preserve patients dignity and minimize his frustration with progressive memory loss.

Tips to improve your memory

  • Receptive mood and interest in the learning task.
  • Better remembered when presented.
  • Material when seen and heard are better retained then only seen or heard.
  • Rehersal and recitation.
  • Periods of rest and preferably sleep.
  • Over learning.
  • Review before examination.

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