signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus & hypoglycemia

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus

Signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are:

1. Frequent urination:

Average person passes urine four to seven times in 24 hours, but people with diabetes the amount of urine produced is more therefore they have to pass urine more frequently.

    • Normally in our in our kidneys the sugar is absorbed in the form of glucose.
    • But when the blood sugar levels become high, the kidneys will try to remove the excess sugar by filtering it out of the blood and producing more urine.
    • This can lead to a person to urinate more frequently, particularly at nigh

2. Increased thirst:

Frequent urination that is required to remove excess sugar from the blood can cause the body to loose alot of water.

    • Over time, this can cause dehydration and lead to a person feeling more thirsty than usual.

3. Extreme hunger

  • One of the main function of insulin is that it helps the cells of the body to take up glucose.
  • In patients with diabetes the body doesn’t make enough or any insulin at all, or the cells might get resistant to the insulin produced by the body therefore in such people the body is not able to use up glucose this makes them feel hungry constantly regardless of how recently they have eaten.

4. Fatigue:

Our digestive system breaks food down into a simple sugar called glucose, which the body uses as fuel.

    • But your cells need insulin to use up glucose.
    • If your body doesn’t make enough or any insulin, or if your cells resist the insulin your body makes, the glucose can’t get into them and you have no energy.
    • This can make you more tired than usual because  people with diabetes often do not get enough energy from the food they eat.

5. Unexplained weight loss.

  • Because our body can’t get energy from our food, instead it starts using up the  muscle and fat for energy.
    • Therefore these people may lose weight even though they haven’t changed their diet.

6. Presence of ketones in the urine

(ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there’s not enough insulin available) the excess of ketones then passes away in the urine.

7. Blurred vision:

An excess of sugar in the blood can damage the blood vessels in the eyes, and causes blurry vision.

  • If a person with diabetes does not take proper treatment, the damage to these blood vessels can become more severe, and permanent vision loss can occur.
  • This blurry vision can occur in one or both of the eyes.

Another reason for blurring of vision in these patients is cause of the changing fluid levels in your body which can make the lenses in your eyes swell up. And therefore makes it difficult to focus.

8. Irritability-

Diabetic person tends to be more irritable and is advised to do yoga and meditation

9. Slow-healing sore.

  • High levels of sugar in the blood can affect the blood flow and damages the nerves which can effect the blood circulation.
  • As a result, even small cuts and wounds may take weeks or months to heal.

10. Frequent infections:

Yeast infection is more common in these patients because there is excess sugar in the blood and urine which provides food for yeast, and can lead to infections. yeast can grow in any warm, moist areas such as fold of skin, including:

    • Between fingers and toes
    • Under the breasts
    • In or around sex organs
    •  in mouth
    • armpits
    • The affected areas are usually itchy, but a person may also experience burning, redness, and soreness

11. Pain or numbness in your feet or legs:

  1. High levels of sugar in the blood can affect the blood circulation and damages the body’s nerves.
    • This can lead to pain or a sensation of tingling or numbness in the hands and feet.
    • This condition is known as neuropathy, this condition can get worse overtime and become more serious if the blood glucose levels are not controlled properly.

12. Acanthosis nigricans

  • Patches of dark skin can be seen on the creases of the neck, armpit, or groin it is due to insulin resistance.
    • These skin patches appear very soft and velvety.
    • Acanthosis nigricans signifies a higher risk of diabetes

13. Impotence or erectile dysfunction in males (ED)

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus - Type 2 diabetes mellitus

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes can include:

  1. increased micturition
  2. increased hunger
  3. increased thirst
  4. blurring of vision
  5. tiredness
  6. sores that are slow to heal
  7. recurring skin infection

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus - Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can include:

  1. Increased hunger
  2. frequent urination
  3. Excessive thirst
  4. unintentional weight loss
  5. blurry vision
  6. tiredness and fatigue
  7. Nausea and vomiting
  8. mood changes
Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus

Signs and symptoms of Hypoglycemia

Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, happens when the level of sugar or glucose in your blood drops too low .

Most common causes of hypoglycemia in diabetic patient are:

  • Taking higher dose of insulin
  • Fasting of not eating for long time
  • Not eating anything after taking a dose of insulin

The warning signs seen in hypoglycaemia are:

  1. Tremors or Shakiness
  2. Confusion
  3. Excess sweating
  4. Cold and clammy extremities
  5. Feeling of cold
  6. Lightheaded or dizzy
  7. Cranky or impatient
  8. Nervous or anxious
  9. Hungry
  10. Tingly or numbness in  lips, tongue, or cheeks
  11. Weakness
  12. Excessive Sleepiness
    1. Other signs which can also occur are:
  13. Palpitations or Fast heartbeat
  14. Blurring of vision
  15. Pale skin
  16. Headache
  17. Coordination problems
  18. Seizures

Note: one should immediately  consult a doctor if above signs are seen.

Signs and symptoms of Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia is a condition wherein blood glucose levels becomes more than 180 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl)

Like hypoglycemia Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar is also not good health.

Signs and symptoms which occurs due to hyperglycemia are:

  1. Increased frequency of urination
  2. Blurring of vision
  3. Excessive thirst
  4. More hunger
  5. Numbness or tingling feet
  6. Glucose in your urine
  7. Tiredness and Fatigue
  8. Weight loss
  9. Slow-healing cuts and sores
  10. Vaginal and skin infections

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus unique to men include:

  1. Erectile dysfunction (EDimpotence)
  2. Retrograde ejaculation
  3. Poor muscle strength
  4. Low testosterone 
  5. Decreased sex drive (decreased libido) and sexual dysfunction

Signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus unique to women include:

  1. urinary tract infections
  2. yeast infections,
  3. dry, itchy skin.

Diabetic coma

This is a serious complication which happens when your blood sugar gets too high and your body gets severely dehydrated.

In this condition blood sugar goes over 600 mg/dl.

Signs seen in diabetic coma are:

  1. Dry, parched mouth
  2. Extreme thirst
  1. Warm, dry skin
  2. Confusion
  3. Sleepiness
  4. High fever(over 101)
  5. Vision loss
  6. Hallucinations
  7. Weakness on one side of your body

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