We will discuss various types of diabetes mellitus and varieties like gdm (gestational diabetes),brittle diabetes,drug induced diabetes,diabetes insipidus in detail.there are many more types of diabetes mellitus but we have chosen most common and important ones
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- It is metabolic disorder in which there occurs increase in blood sugar levels.
- Blood glucose (sugar) is the main source of energy to our body which comes from the food that we eat.
- In our body the hormone insulin is made in β cells of islet in the pancreas and is secreted in the blood.
- Function of insulin is to move the sugar from the blood into the cells to be stored or used for energy.
- Sometimes your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or doesn’t make any insulin at all or can’t effectively use the insulin that it makes.
- Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn’t reach your cells. Untreated high blood sugar from diabetes can damage your nerves, eyes, kidneys, and other organs.
- Although diabetes has no cure, you can take steps to manage your diabetes and stay healthy.
1) TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS
- It is an autoimmune disease. Which means the immune system attacks and destroys its own beta cells in the pancreas, where the insulin hormone is made.
- It’s unclear what causes this attack.
- About 10 percent of people with diabetes have this type.
- It is also known as juvenile diabetes, as it is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, although it can appear at any age.
- In this type the body fails to produce insulin therefore the people with type I diabetes are insulin-dependent, which means they must take artificial insulin daily to stay alive.
2) TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
- This is the most common type of diabetes, and it has strongly associated with obesity.
- It affects the way the body uses insulin. If you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not use insulin well.
- You can develop type 2 diabetes at any age, even during childhood. However, this type of diabetes occurs most often in middle-aged and older people.
- Diabetes occurs when your body becomes resistant to insulin, and sugar builds up in your blood.
- While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as it normally would.
to know –signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus & hypoglycemia
- It occurs when your blood sugar is higher than normal, but it’s not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
- Doctors refer to some people as having prediabetes or borderline diabetes when blood sugar is usually in the range of 100 to 125 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL).
- Normal blood sugar levels are between 70 and 99 mg/dL, whereas a person with diabetes will have a fasting blood sugar higher than 126 mg/dL.
4) GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS
- Gestational diabetes mellitus also known as GDM is high blood sugar during pregnancy.
- This type occurs in women during pregnancy when the body can become less sensitive to insulin.
- Insulin-blocking hormones produced by the placenta causes this type of diabetes.
- Gestational diabetes does not occur in all women and usually resolves after the baby is born. However, if you’ve had gestational diabetes, you have a greater chance of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.
5) DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE- MODY
- Maturity onset diabetes of young (MODY) it is a type of diabetes that develops before the patient reaches 25 years.
- It is sometimes compared to type 2 diabetes as it has similar symptoms.
- Due to its strong genetic risk factors it is more likely to be inherited.
- It is caused by mutations, or changes in a single gene.
- These changes are usually passed through families, but sometimes the gene mutation happens on its own.
- Unlike type 1 and 2 which occurs due to multiple gene mutation MODY is caused by single gene mutation.
6) DIABETES LADA (LATENT AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES OF ADULTHOOD)
- It is a type of diabetes type 1. It is also referred to as diabetes type 1.5 the reason being that it is a form of diabetes type 1 but do appear similar to diabetes type 2.
- Like type 1, diabetes LADA is also an autoimmune condition in which the bodies immune system attacks its own β cells of islet in the pancreas.
- Which are responsible for insulin production but unlike type 1 it does not appear in childhood but takes a longer period to develop like type 2 diabetes.
- The slower onset of diabetes symptoms being presented in people over 35 years of age results in misdiagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
7) DRUG INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS
- Certain types of drugs can increase the blood sugar levels as side effect and can lead to development of diabetes. In some cases the diabetes can be reversible and in some cases it is permanent.
- Drugs which can cause diabetes are:
- Thiazide diuretics
- It may be possible to reduce the risk developing drug induced diabetes.
- Diabetes mellitus can be prevented by keeping a healthy lifestyle while on medication. Other way is by taking smaller doses of medication or taking it for short period of time.
- NOTE: Before making any changes with medications do advice your registered health care provider.
8) STEROID INDUCED DIABETES MELLITUS
- Steroids are drugs which are used to reduce inflammation in certain immune related conditions such as arthritis, SLE, Asthma, crohns disease, ulcerative colitis etc.
- Steroids increase insulin resistance thus causing blood glucose levels to rise and remain high.
- Its treatment is same as that of drug induced diabetes.
Types of diabetes mellitus
9) DOUBLE DIABETES MELLITUS
- Is a condition in which a person with pre existing type 1 diabetes develops insulin resistance which is a feature of type 2 diabetes.
- The main reason of developing diabetes in such patient is obesity.
- So lifestyle modification can help prevent the formation of double diabetes.
- These patient have to take insulin as they have type one diabetes and will require to combat the formation of insulin resistance by lifestyle changes.
- In some cases patient might have to take medications which are prescribed for type 2 diabetes to help improve insulin sensitivity.
10) SECONDARY DIABETES MELLITUS
- Secondary diabetes is a diabetes that results as a consequence of another medical condition.
- Certain health condition which can cause secondary diabetes are:
- Chronic pancreatitis
- Pancreatic cancer
- Cystic fibrosis
- Cushings syndrome
- Or the diabetes that is caused as a result of the medicines that are taken to treat certain conditions are called as drug induced diabetes is also a form of secondary diabetes.
11) JUVENILE DIABETES MELLITUS
- It is a form of type 1 diabetes which occurs in young.
- Management is same as that of type 1 diabetes. These patients should be put on a strict diet control to improve the glycemic control
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12) BRITTLE DIABETES
- Also known as labile diabetes is a type of type 1 diabetes which is hard to control.
- This type of diabetes is very rare.
- It is said to have an association with psychological issues such as stress, depression, etc. and inconsistent digestion as a result of nerve damage.
13) DIABETES INSIPIDUS (DI)
- Diabetes insipidus is a rare form of diabetes which does not have any relation with the blood sugar levels.
- It is due to reduced formation of anti-diuretic hormone called vasopressin which is produced in the brain.
- It is released to stop the kidneys from producing increased amount of urine resulting in water retention.
- It is released when there is a relatively low amount of water in the body.
- In diabetes insipidus as the hormone is produced less it causes a lot of water to be excreted in urine causing polyuria (excessive urination).
Different types of diabetes insipidus are:
• Neurogenic or central DI:
It is caused by a problem in the hypothalamus which is the part of brain responsible for producing vasopressin.
• Nephrogenic DI:
It is caused by a problem in the kidneys where in the kidneys become non responsive to vasopressin.
There are 2 types;
- Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus
- Acquired Nephrogenic Diabetes insipidus
• Gestational Diabetes insipidus
This can occur during pregnancy where in the uterus produces vasopressinase enzyme which breaks down the vasopressin which causes Diabetes insipidus.
• Dipsogenic Diabetes insipidus
It occurs because of an issue with the thirst function of the body.
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